Can you fix macular degeneration?


Age-related macular degeneration is included in the group of pathologies defined as degenerative maculopathy. In particular, the age form, most often found especially in women, appears in the sixth decade of life in both eyes, although not always in the same degree of severity.
It affects the yellow spot, in other words, the part of the retina that is responsible for the clarity of vision.
The patologic picture is quite complex and includes various changes: the formation of drusen, neovascularization of the retina, detachment of the pigment epithelium, which can occur separately or at the same time and lead to blindness in case of late detection and treatment.
A test to identify the evolutionary stage of degeneration and classify the type of damage is fluorography and OCT. The first is the intravenous administration of a contrast agent and the observation with the help of a retinograph of the passage of the substance through the vessels and layers of the retina and the corresponding changes.
The most appropriate therapy at the global level is intravitreal administration of Anti VegF (vascular endothelial growth factor) drugs, such as Avastin, Lucentis, Macugen, etc., that act against neovascularization, and therefore against the main complications of macular degeneration in its “raw” form .

Treatment of age-related macular degeneration
Through sight, a person receives most of the information. Gradually, however, visual acuity decreases, and approximately 20% of people over 50 years of age have age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The cause of this disease is dystrophy of the macula, the central and most important part of the retina. Namely, central vision is required for work, reading, driving a car, it affects the ability to work in mature and old age. The price of his loss is very high.

Forms of AMD
Forms of age-related macular degenerationIn ophthalmology, there are two forms of age-related macular degeneration – dry and wet. The most common (85–90% of cases) is the dry form of AMD, in which yellowish spots appear in the area of ​​the macula – drusen. Expanding, drusen provoke an inflammatory process with an increase in the number of pathological vessels. Next, scarring of the tissue occurs, leading to a deterioration in central vision, up to its complete loss. Therefore, timely diagnosis and treatment are so important.

However, this form is less severe than wet, in which the disease develops rapidly. The newly formed vessels are inferior and fragile. Leaking from them, lymph and blood cells accumulate under the retina, damaging the photoreceptors. Without treatment of the wet form of AMD, loss of central vision occurs.

Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration
Among the main risk factors for the development of AMD are such as

– age over 50 years;
– genetic and genetic predisposition;
– Belonging to Caucasians;
– history of cardiovascular diseases;
– light iris;
– cataract;
– female;
– smoking;
– unhealthy diet and high body weight;
– effects on the retina of ultraviolet radiation.
The symptoms of AMD
At first, the symptoms of WYD are hardly noticeable, especially if only one eye is affected. Over time, a blur appears in the center, which then darkens. Colors become difficult to see, objects appear to be misty and vague. Contrast decreases, it becomes difficult to look in bright light and to do work that requires a good view at close range.

Modern methods of diagnosis of patients with AMD
You can check the quality of vision even at home with the Amsler test. Normally, a person sees a black dot located in the center of the grid. If there are problems, the grid lines are distorted, the point spreads and turns into a spot. This is a serious reason to contact an ophthalmologist.

For the most accurate diagnosis of changes in the macula using optical coherent tomography, which allows to identify the earliest manifestations of age-related macular degeneration. Also, experts use fluorescent angiography of the fundus. Both of these methods allow you to confirm the diagnosis, clarify the stage of the disease and determine the optimal treatment strategy.

Treatment Forms of AMD

Treatment of various forms of AMD
To date, the most effective treatment method is the introduction of drugs that inhibit the growth factor of the newly formed eye vessels.

Medications for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration
Medications for the treatment of AMD in Belarus are “Eilea” and “Lucentis”. Both are inserted into the vitreous of the eye and are designed to stabilize the visual function and prevent further damage to the macula.

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